Fish Oil: Omega 3

18 Jul

To me Fish oils have become a symbol of one of my central Crossfit struggles. For those who know me, I have a lot of  struggles. My struggle with multiple strict  muscle ups. My struggle with ring handstands. My struggle with reality.

One of the many conflicts that occupy our time is merchandising: should we try and make money by selling you stuff. Should there be  a machine selling sugar water, and spring water… should we take up all those commission offers and sell you protein powder. On the whole, our view is no. Everyone who coaches at Crosfit London has outside duties, and we just dont really have the time to unpack, audit stuff,  get change etc etc. ( but hats off to the lovely kate who somehow manages to keep the t-shirt box stocked up).

That said, when we get around to getting some full time staff members, that may change: with a member of staff cluttering up the place , we may well get them  to flog you protein powder and inov8’s.

For now, we just dont have the resources to collect orders, collect money allocate etc etc.

For most products who cares? You can get protein powder everywhere ( really), inov8’s are easier bought on line… but we thought we would make a slight exception with omega 3.

The literature on Omega 3 is persuasive, but many types of oils dont have enough EPA DHA content. In the quantities crossfit recommend consumption, the oil needs to be very pure, and not rancid. To this end, we identified  Pure Pharma as a very good bulk supplier, but lacked the time and will to arrange a supplement club.

We had also been aware of  Minami Nutrition UK  who received some good reviews on their products so we have asked them for a discount  code that you can use. So if you have a small order, go to .

and use the voucher  CROSSFIT10 .The voucher code should be used at the checkout process and will get you 10% off ( if a lot of you use it, they may give us a commission too!!)
According to Ajay from Minami ” Our new product MorEPA Platinum is a certain winner at the moment. It contains 1,100mg Omega-3 per capsule and is certainly the first choice for top athletes at the moment. I would strongly recommend this product for your cliental”
However, For bulk orders it may be worthwhile dropping  a line or ordering from their website
That said, I know Simon mentioned another supplier, so maybe he will add the details in comments below

43 thoughts on “Fish Oil: Omega 3

  1. I’m currently using a product which Steven recommended:

    You can get 1000 softgels for £50…they have ratios of 330/220 EPA/DHA, and seem very good value so are a good way to get a higher dose in:

    A second option is from Natures Best, you can get 360 softgels for £26 with a ratio of 360/240 EPA/DHA:

    If you want to order small amounts of PurePharma, to avoid international shipping costs you can order from GearAsRX (Crossfit 3D’s shop venture) 120 softgels for £20 with a ratio of 433/173 EPA/DHA:

    (Original source –

  2. i have the natural best ones….i got 180 capsuals for £15 and they came the next day. I have no idea about this stuff but they seem to be pretty good 🙂

  3. i think what impressed me was that More EPA has

    765mg EPA and 240mg of DHA… someone will have to crunch the numbers for me. but minami have a buy 1 get 1 free offer that turned my sluttish head.

    you see how confusing this all is.

  4. Yeah they do have nice ratios, the problem is though that they are selling 60 softgels for over £30…thus making it essentially 50p per softgel (for 765/240).

    Whereas if you got the ones from bulksupplements, if you took three softgels you would be at 990/660…and their softgels equate to 5p per softgel so this “serving” would be 15p and you are getting more EPA and more DHA than “More EPA”…

    …however I wasn’t aware of this buy one get one free offer and it doesn’t seem to be made very clear on their website.

    …and obviously it could be debated which had a purer product and was more potent, but without official testing it’s hard to tell.

  5. Si/Andrew/Kirsty

    What did you find the beneficial effect of taking fish oil was? The only supplements I really use is a basic multivit but I’d try it if recommended

    Apols for being lazy and not googling 🙂

  6. The pure pharma omega 3’s are wicked I got mine for £20.00 from the crossfit 3d webshop. Oh also if some people are looking for a high quality protein powder at a great price and nutritional value, I suggest optimum nutrition hydrowhey (hydrolysed like progenex but cheaper and more servings)

  7. Its main effect is as an anti-inflammatory…this helps with muscle soreness and DOMS etc…and also greatly benefits heart health, the brain and fat metabolism. That’s the high level lazy answer, research in to it 😛

  8. Hey Pat. Our very own Phil ‘the awesome recoverer’ Holbrook turned me onto fishoil; as Si says, you can have a killer WOD yet not feel it the following day simply by having downed a hand full of fish oil caps… I tried eating enough fresh fish to get the same effect but got bored (if only fish tasted like ribs!)…

  9. Simon – do the ones you use (the bulksuppliers) give you fishy burps? I may have drunk the crossfit kool-aid, but I’m still a *lady* and hate that side effect of fish oil supplements…and how many do you take?

  10. Brie – I haven’t noticed any “fishburps” so far…

    I usually take approx. 10 a day (3300 EPA/2200 DHA) although I will cycle this dependent on how sore I am usually, if i have had a hard session and want to recover ASAP I will up my dosage.

    A good site to work out how much you need is Robb Wolf’s calculator…you just plug in your weight and the fish oils stats in the red boxes and it does all the hard work for you. Bear in mind though that the recommendations can be quite high depending on the “maintenance factor” you choose:

    1. @Brie – I have tried a few different brands of fish oil, and am currently using the Bulk Supplements ones. No fishy burps at all with them, in stark contrast to the Boots ones (3 for 2 offer!) that I had used previously. Urgh.

      As to the quality, I am not really sure. The Pure Pharma ones certainly tasted (lemon) and looked (mysterious black) better, but ultimately I am not sure if I can tell the difference in real terms.

      I also take 10 a day (just before bedtime) and often a few extra if I am feeling particularly beaten up. They certainly reduce achy muscles!

      One word of warning: fish oil – particularly in the doses described above – acts as a blood thinner, and may slightly retard blood clotting. This can make pretty small cuts more dramatic than you may be expecting…

  11. Based on the 2 for 1 offer from Minami for their platinum product (and possibly the additional 10% off from Andrew’s code) these represent better value than the Purepharma product – in terms of EPA/DHA content per pound. Both these products are highly pure and therefore I would have no reservations in taking high quantities of either. The products mentioned by Si above (especially the first one) are quite clearly the best value for money when you bulk buy the 1000 capsule bag. On the other hand, I am not sure about the purity, and the % of good fish oil (EPA/DHA) to overall fish oil is far lower than Minami/Purepharma – and this is an indication to purity. If we could find an IFOS (International Fish Oil Standards) or EMAS (Eurpoean Environmental Standard) test to indicate the bulk product is free from impurities (some of which can be harmful in high doses) than this is clearly the best product. Until we do, I will avoid the budget option personally as I intend to take high dose fish oil – so want as pure a product as I can find. Minami or PurePharma fit the bill if you can justify the high prices.

  12. hi Brie, the idea of the ranges we are suggesting is that they use pure fish oil. many suppliers use “rancid” oil ( cheaper!!) which gives the after taste ( apparently).

    Also, looks like the minami 2 for one offer has expired.

  13. If the 2-4-1 is over then Purepharma is better value than minami – although I prefer Minami so I bought in bulk on the 2-4-1 and will look for special offers where I can.

  14. Goes to show the crap you can buy on the high street – after Phil recommended taking fish oil I bought some seven seas stuff – after a month of still being sore but having halitosis like Captain’s Birdseye I stopped. Having just fished them out from the back of the cupboard, and checked the label (one a day do not exceed recommended dose) of 180g (combined EPA and DHA), laughable compared to the levels I should apparently be taking for an effect. Some more research for me in future. The alternative would be to avoid Mr.Shrago and his OHS’ bonanza!

  15. Don’t worry Mark…it has probably happened to all of us at one time. The majority of fish oil on sale in the UK is pitifully low, and they market expensive stuff as “Super Strength” and even that is below an average decent product.

    I love the “Do not exceed one a day” too on a crazily low dosage!

  16. those dosage recommendations are because of the impurities. They do it to cover their @rses. If you are after high doses avoid sh1t product – otherwise your hair will probably fall out

  17. there was an earlier omega 3/fish oil craze ( about 20 years ago) that came a cropper because the fish oils on the market were filthy.

    The current trend has a clean product range to back it up. Be thankful.

    BTW, I wrote to seven seas asking for the results of their purity tests, i got this response.

    I wrote


    “we run a crossfit gym in london, and many of our clients follow the Zone diet, and are considering high doses of fish oils. in respect of your cod liver oil products, could you answer the question below

    I’ve heard that fish oil supplements may have PCBs, dioxins, and other chemicals in them—and some have 70 times more than others. Please send me your lab results so I and my family and friends, and gym members can make an informed choice when we’re considering purchasing your product. Please do not just include a statement about your safety or purity or what standard you meet, but instead send me a test for all 209 PCB congeners done by EPA Test Method 1668A or the most precise, detailed test you have of your cod liver oil so that I can decide for myself-and compare amongst brands when I make this important decision.

    heres hoping we can recommend your product.”

    They wrote back……………….

    Hello Mr Sternler

    Thank you for your recent enquiry regarding Seven Seas Pure Cod Liver Oil and Pure Fish Oil health supplements.

    We are obviously concerned that you have worries about the purity of any Seven Seas product and would like to assure you that all our products are safe and extremely beneficial to health.

    Food contamination has become an issue of major concern and it is certainly true that fish from certain seas have been shown to contain small amounts of environmental pollutants. In the case of fish and fish products the levels of contamination can often be related to the source and age of the fish. Levels are much lower in fish from open waters, as in the North Atlantic, Arctic and South Pacific Oceans, with higher levels of organochlorine and heavy metal contamination occurring in fish caught in coastal waters and in landlocked seas. Seven Seas fish oil products are predominantly produced from fish caught in open waters which have extremely low levels of pollution.

    Seven Seas have been routinely monitoring all production for over 15 years. Continuous extensive testing and quality control is carried out on the fish oils at each stage of the purification process and they are checked regularly from the time that purchase is envisaged right through the processing and bottling or encapsulation of the oil. This includes monitoring and testing for pollutants to ensure that Seven Seas Pure Cod Liver Oil is completely safe and free from harmful levels of pollutants.

    Analysis for contaminants is carried out on our behalf by UKAS accredited laboratories using a variety of techniques including Low and High Resolution Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry. We are delighted to be able to confirm that all our products comply fully with current EU and UK legislation addressing contaminant issues.

    Seven Seas has one of the biggest cod liver oil purification systems in the world and uses the latest technology in the purification and quality assurance processes now patented as the Ocean Gold process. All crude fish oil is processed and monitored during production. The processing includes a high temperature, vacuum step which has the effect of further reducing any small amount of PCB’s and pesticides that may be present. The special processing techniques and associated stringent quality control procedures guarantee the purity and safety of the Seven Seas brand of cod liver oil and pure fish oils.

    In addition Seven Seas are the only manufacturer with a full product licence for Cod Liver Oil granted by the Department of Health. As a manufacturer of medicinal products, our production facilities, analytical methods and quality control systems are regularly inspected by the MHRA Inspectorate. Seven Seas Pure Cod Liver Oil is one the safest licensed medicines available with over 75 years of use behind it.

    Looking to the future the important factor is that manufacturers and Government Agencies recognise the problem of pollution and work together to eliminate it. There are many working parties continuously monitoring food supplies in the UK for just such contamination, and reporting regularly on their findings. The Department of the Environment also plays its part in issuing guidelines on emissions into the environment, as control of the emission of these materials is the only route by which, in the longer term, levels can be reduced. There is already some evidence, relating dioxins, furans and PCB’s to indicate that worldwide initiatives in this direction are gradually improving the situation.

    There is no doubt that any PCB’s and other environmental pollutants are undesirable and with the latest detection methods minute levels can be found in all samples tested (including competitors) by our own methods, but at the levels found at present, the huge and proven benefits arising from consumption of fish oils vastly outweigh the tiny likelihood of any adverse effect from these minor contaminants.

    Unfortunately do to the patented process of our Ocean Gold technology we cannot release any testing certificates. However we hope that you will accept our reassurance that you can trust the Seven Seas brand and be reassured by the fact that Seven Seas has over 75 years experience in producing a medically licenced Pure Cod Liver Oil and other fish oils supplements, and that they are safe and free from harmful levels of pollutants.

    Consumer Response
    Marketing Department
    Seven Seas Ltd

    Tel: +44 (0)1482 375234
    Fax: +44 (0)1482 374345


    Well, who knew… certainly not Marks breath!

  18. sounds like a through response but not one with the necessary guarantees on purity for high doses of fish oil (for e.g. he states only that the oil is made from fish ‘predominantly’ caught in open waters – not exclusively) – remember to take high doses using even the high strength version of the seven seas product requires something like 10+ pills a day. I wouldn’t risk it personally.

  19. Just bought the 1000 soft gel option from Si’s first post, will see how I get on.

  20. Hi all.

    The 1000 soft gel on paper looks like fantastic value, as long as the purity holds out. so Ive asked the supplier for some purity info. Can those taking higher doses report if they have gastic discomfort.

    if this is clean, and we can take high doses, its a God send.

  21. I haven’t noticed any discomfort or side effects at all. The one thing I have noticed though, is that I occasionally get pretty sore from training and usually a higher dose will help sort me out (with the pure pharma), however with these ones it doesn’t seem to have as big an effect. It is hard to tell though how I would feel without them vs the difference they are making. Will be interested to see this purity report though, although I expect you’ll get a similar response as you did before.

  22. btw, if you do try bulk supplaments
    use this code for an extra 5% off

    they have been very helpful thus far and are gladly digging out purity certificates for us.

  23. Hey

    Could someone help me out, ive just bought some MorEPA Platinum and in order to get the amounts calculated on the rob wolf link, i will have to go over my recommended dose, is this a problem ?

  24. its about time we had this debate. every Trendy health site gives it “large” about their trendy solutions . They then exclude their advice from legal liability

    ” Medical Disclaimer: The information presented here is not intended or implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. All content, including text, links, references and related information contained in or available through this page is for information purposes only. XXXX encourage you to review all information regarding any medical condition
    or treatment (including dietary changes or new supplementation) with your physician.”

    It means do it at your own risk., Or go and see a physician who know ‘s nothing about this, or a dietary expert who will parrot the food pyramid at you ( you know, the one that gives you diabetes)

    The manufacturers cover themselves by using a low dose. if you go over that, they are not liable so you cannot sue them.

    The reality with all these things is that you are on your own, as we all are. We read the literature, monitor our health and performance and experiment.

    i would say that, if you want to self experiment, start off with a normal dose, then add slowly. Thats what i would say ans an individual, As a director of this organisation, I must now say, after you have spoken to your doctor…

    I can say there are some of our members who swear by this. There example should be interesting evidence. Unfortunately very few people are prepared to say “do this, and if it goes wrong, I will compensate you”

    This said, there does seem to be some really good supporting evidence, but, if Robb Wolf isn’t prepared to recommend high dose fish oil without legal qualification, then no one should.

    Fitness and diet is not science. Its religious.

  25. Samir – if you want to try taking the high dosage recommended by Rob Wolff then you are better off taking the purest product you can with the best ratios of EPA/DHA to overall omega 3 fish oil. By doing so you are minimising the intake of non-helpful extras to that precious EPA/DHA. That is precisely why, for the time-being, I like PurePharma or Minami Platinum as these are the best I can find on an EPA/DHA ratio measurement and on purity. If, however, the bulk ordered product comes back with a clean bill of health, and assuming of course I am willing to take a higher number of pills to achieve my EPA/DHA target, I would not see any problems with taking these pills.

  26. So I didn’t really notice much of a difference with this stuff (just over a month of taking it). Like anything, I presume some people just don’t notice much of a response. I took the recommended dosage. Maybe im an outlier.

    One post I would find useful from Andrew/steve/Phil/Si or anyone else with experience of them, would be some thoughts on the need for protein shakes. I’ve never used them and always associated them with bodybuilding. Not in a hugely vain way, but doing a lot of crossfit doesnt seem to add any muscle to my frame at all. I now seem to just stay at around 78kgs. I figure adding a few kgs of bulk would probably help with strength stuff and the heavier metcons. Would I see a benefit from using one? If so any particular brands recommended?

  27. Hmm…you’re right some people won’t notice much difference, although if you were taking recommended dosage then that might be why (the rx’ed dosage in the UK on most brands is pitifully low, usually about 300mg EPA or thereabouts on the ones I see)

    With regard to the protein shakes…I try and have one after every WOD. It’s pretty important to get some protein and carbs in you post workout and there’s a good window of about 15-30 minutes to get it in. As you know, protein is important for muscle repair and growth and it doesn’t have to be a shake, it could be any whole food. It’s just Whey protein is very quick to enter the bloodstream and a lot of people don’t feel like eating a meal that close to working out.

    I wouldn’t consider it vain and I get why you think it’s associated with bodybuilders, but the truth is if you want to perform well, you have to look after your body and provide it with good nutrition. Some may argue a powder supplement isn’t the best way to go about that, but it’s cheaper/quicker/easier than sitting down with a chicken breast at that point.

    I personally use MyProtein as they are pretty good value, most of the flavours taste alright and the composition is pretty good. Shop around though, you can order samples from the site of different flavours in small packets.

    As for bulking…you’re not going to notice much difference from one shake. You need to up your calories…work out your BMR using an online calculator and that will be your maintenance calories, and then you need to make sure you’re consistently hitting over that. You can either do it the clean way or the dirty way 😉

  28. Andrew – that first article is excellent because it questions the science. I don’t know the answer but I have read both the article and the comments and have taken from it the following:-

    1. there is an abscence of high quality long-term scientific studies into the benefit of high dose fish oil. In this particular study the long-term benefit appears questionable but the sample size is small and the fish oil source appears not to be high grade. I don’t understand the science.

    2. Short- medium term studies show some benefit which is consistent with the benefit I felt to my recovery times (fish oil is an anti-inflammatory and hence reduces the build up of toxic fats and also helps joints).

    3. If you are going to take high dose fish oil (defined in this article as a few grams a day), it is best to make absolutely sure that the purity of the product is good (see Andrew’s second article posted above). This, once again, pushes me towards the purepharma or minami product.

    4. I am taking fish oil to help me recover from training and/or to help my body deal with a bad intake of food/drink. I have been taking 3g a day (3 pills). From now on I will reduce my intake on days when I am not training and eating healthily to 1 pill (approx 1g) per day. For bad food/drinks days I will take 2 pills, and on days when I am training I will take 3 pills, with the potential to take a similar dose the following day if recovery is not great.

    5. I will keep my eyes open for good studies but I will listen to my body in the meantime.

    Has anyone else changed their behaviour?

    Patrick – on the subject of protein shakes – I don’t touch them, never have and never will. If I want something pre/post work-out I use good old-fashioned full fat milk.

  29. I can’t say whether this is merely a placebo effect but since I started taking the Morepa I feel less stiff the following morning after training. I haven’t taken any for two days (merely because I’ve forgotten to – which is what I do with all pills and supplements), and I’m back to groaning every time I stand up. As to Protein shakes – Phil I’m interested what your objections are? As I understand they’re mostly milk derived, Is it much different to taking Cod Liver Oil capsules (as distinct from eating an awful lot of oily fish)?

  30. Hi, I’m a Crossfit fan and attended an icourse a while back. I happen also to be part of a family business that produces patented, ultra-pure pharmaceutical-grade EPA fish oils! So I thought I’d jump in and offer all Crossfit members a discount of 20% off the retail prices.

    We use ethyl-EPA in our products, which is basically a 70% purity fish oil concentrate that has been molecularly distilled to remove PCBs, dioxins, mercury, as well as vitamin A and vitamin D (fat-soluble, these aren’t ideal to take in large amounts!). I don’t know how technical you want to get, but to give you an idea, our raw ingredients cost about 10x that of generic off-the-shelf oils. We’ve always batch tested all of our products as a matter of course, but we have to maintain this quality for dossiers we submit to several of the countries we distribute to.

    Uniquely, for those who are worried about contaminants, we are (as far as I know) the only manufacturer of fish oils to be registered on the stringent Informed Sports Programme – a rigorous test for nutritional supplements to ensure they are safe for elite athletes.

    The Informed-Sport programme ( is a
    supplement testing programme in which companies register
    products/ingredients with HFL, and have them regularly screened for banned
    steroids and stimulants to ensure they are safer for athletes to use. The
    registered products are entitled to use the Informed-Sport logo, which
    makes them easily recognisable by athletes as quality tested products.
    This programme was set up in consultation with UK Anti-Doping (the UK’s
    national anti-doping organisation), and has the support of many sports
    governing bodies, anti-doping agencies and dieticians/nutritionists/trainers, who recommend that athletes look for products bearing the Informed-Sport logo when choosing a supplement.

    A range of athletes take our range of patented pure EPA supplements, from
    MMA fighters and thai boxers, to Ironman triathlon athletes, brazilian
    jiujitsu black belts and award-winning figure athletes. Uniquely, our
    supplements are pure EPA (with no DHA) and also contain GLA for maximum anti-inflammatory benefits… this also means that our products undergo further purification to extract and create the EPA concentrate. Comparing our products to fish oil is like comparing river water to tap water! Please see or for more information.

    ***We’d be happy to offer members 20% discount online with the code CROSSFITUK. ***

    Price info:

    Vegepa: £12.20 for 60 capsules, 500 mg , EPA and GLA (of which 280mg EPA)
    OmegaFlex: £12.95 for 60 capsules 500 mg, EPA, GLA & glucosamine HCL – an added recovery boost for joints!

    If you’d like further information on our products, manufacturing processes
    or certificates of analysis please get in touch with our in-house nutrition scientist Dr Nina Bailey on or 0845 1300 424 (9-5pm mon-fri), who is also on hand to answer any technical questions you may have.

    Best wishes and happy training!

  31. Interesting…i’ve never seen a fish oil product with no DHA at all. Could you provide an explanation as to why your product doesn’t contain any?

    I came across a study a while ago that discussed how men respond better to EPA whilst women were found to respond better to DHA:


  32. There are a couple of EPA-only products out there; essentially the clinical research has begun to separate out the active ingredients within fish oil and has discovered that there are different modes of action across the different fatty acids. The EPA-only trials are more recent, but there is strong evidence to suggest that EPA’s actions are different in terms of facilitating brain function as opposed to structure, and also its ability to influence inflammation is greater than DHA. This effect is observed with higher ratios of EPA to DHA. For some conditions, DHA is favoured, and others, it is EPA. It also depends on age…

    Since most of the conditions we work with are inflammation related we have developed a good deal of expertise in this area and so can send you the heavy-weight papers if you are interested to explore more…

    To summarise it very briefly, here’s an excerpt from our website:

    EPA is a long-chain omega-3 fatty acid which actually works in several ways to moderate inflammation. Firstly it is converted to its own series of prostaglandins but, unlike those derived from AA, these are anti-inflammatory and provide pain relief. Secondly, if EPA levels in the diet are increased it can lower the amount of AA in the body. Thirdly, it actually competes with AA for the COX enzyme, working in a very similar way to NSAIDs by preventing the formation of inflammatory products – except without the associated side effects. It appears, however, that if another fatty acid called GLA (gamma linolenic acid – an anti-inflammatory omega-6) is present with EPA, then all these factors are intensified – in other words, there is a synergistic effect between these two substances such that, when taken in combination, they work even better in the fight against inflammation.

    Now we’re getting pretty technical but it’s all about the omega-3 and omega-6 pathways, and the conversions from short-chain fatty acids to long-chain fatty acids. Moreover there is a lot of interaction between the two pathways at different points in those chains. This explains why omega-6 has attracted some negative attention regarding inflammatory actions – in reality it is only some omega-6s that have this effect, and it still depends on the ratio against omega-3 as to whether byproducts are inflammatory or anti-inflammatory. Often this area of science is over simplified (understandable) but it can result in the wrong messages getting out there. Evening primrose oil for example is a wonderful source of GLA, and full of anti-inflammatory benefits. Yet we constantly read in consumer health magazines that we need to avoid omega-6. This doesn’t give you the whole picture and indeed omega-6 is vital for maintaining equilibrium. It’s only because the western diet is full of omega-6s that we’re so focused on omega-6 to restore the balance. If we were in the opposite situation, with excessive amounts of omega-3 and no omega-6, there would be adverse health implications also.

    The best person to talk to is our nutrition scientist Dr Nina Bailey, who has a wonderful knack for distilling these complex ideas into really understandable concepts. Her diagrams also help!

  33. ** correction to the above post in the penultimate paragraph (typing too quickly!) – we are focused on ‘omega-3’ to restore the balance of the western diet. 🙂

  34. just came across this 2 year study that didnt identify enhanced mental function after fish oil dosage. Nb authors say the study may not be long enough.. really just parking the reference here to look at later

    Alan D Dangour, Elizabeth Allen, Diana Elbourne, Nicky Fasey, Astrid E Fletcher, Pollyanna Hardy, Graham E Holder, Rosemary Knight, Louise Letley, Marcus Richards, and Ricardo Uauy. Effect of 2-y n%u20133 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on cognitive function in older people: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Am. J. Clinical Nutrition, Apr 21, 2010 DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.29121

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